Frequently Asked Questions

OPUS Installation

OPUS Installation

What are the system requirements for the OPUS software?

OPUS currently runs and has been tested on the following operating systems:
    - Solaris       2.8
    - AIX           5.1
    - Linux         RedHat 8.0 (2.4.20-30.8)
    - Linux         Fedora Core 1 (2.4.22-1.2197.nptl)           [our build platform]
    - Linux         RedHat Enterprise 3 (2.4.21-15.04.ELsmp)
OPUS has also been partially tested on RedHat 9.0. Most blackboard functionality exists, but the Managers may encounter difficulties depending on kernel version. Given the RedHat release climate, unless a strong request for support of RH9.x is made, OPUS may not support it (or 8.0) in the future.

The OPUS Managers have also been tested on these platforms, which include Windows. In addition, plans are being discussed to port the OPUS blackboards to some version of Windows.

In addition, certain types of OPUS task processes can be run on basically any operating system, while communicating with OPUS servers running on one of the operating systems listed above.

The processes that form your pipeline will determine how fast a CPU and how much memory are required. The disk space requirements of OPUS vary depending on the type of installation desired and the size of your pipeline processes and datasets. In general, your system should be capable of running the pipeline processes outside of the OPUS environment to a satisfactory performance level; this will ensure satisfactory performance within the OPUS environment.

Additional requirements:

How much disk space is required to install the OPUS system?

The answer depends on which and how many operating systems you will run OPUS. The common set of files to all operating systems requires 48 MB; Solaris requires an additional 307 MB, Linux 135 MB, and AIX 354 MB.

Additional space is required to run the sample pipeline and to install the Java managers.

Can I run OPUS on a network of computers?


In fact, OPUS was specifically designed to allow for distributed processing across several networked computers. The primary requirement is that all computers that are part of the OPUS pipeline be able to see the OPUS configuration files. This implies that there must be common disk space shared among all of the networked computers (an NFS mounted volume, for example). The one possible freeing exception to this requirement is described here.

In addition, Unix systems must be reachable with a remote-shell facility such as rsh (i.e., the rsh service must be activated in your inet daemon configuration file, and the appropriate rhosts files must be present). For additional security, ssh or another similar package may be used in place of rsh.

Does OPUS require special privileges to run?


However, a user does need to have an account on each machine that is to run OPUS processes. Also, for pipelines employing multiple nodes across a network, all accounts must allow rsh or ssh access. You can test whether or not your accounts are configured to allow rsh or ssh access by attempting to execute a remote command with rsh (substitute ssh for rsh in the following example to test if the secure shell software is installed and configured at your site). For example, suppose you have accounts on two machines, foo and bar, that will run OPUS processes. To test whether you have rsh access you might try the following command from foo:

   rsh bar ls
You might have to use a full domain name specification (e.g., bar.yourdomain.edu) if bar is not on your local network.

If successful, you should get a directory listing of your login directory on bar. If you received a "Permission denied" error message, then most likely you do not have a .rhosts file on bar. Refer other problems to your system administrator.

How do I obtain the OPUS system?

You can install the OPUS system from the distribution CD-ROM. To obtain a CD-ROM, or to report any problems with your CD-ROM, send e-mail to opushelp@stsci.edu.

Do I have to put the OPUS distribution in a specially named directory?

The OPUS installation procedure allows you to choose where to install the OPUS distribution directory tree. The location of this directory is not important although it must be available to all systems that will use OPUS. The default location is /usr/local, and if you choose to install OPUS there, you will need the appropriate write access.

How do I install the OPUS distribution?

First, the OPUS CD-ROM must be mounted on the system on which you wish to install the software. Once the CD-ROM is available, you can access the README file in the install directory on the top-level of the CD. The README file contains late-breaking information relevant to OPUS installation. Be sure to read the contents of this file before proceeding.

If you are upgrading from a previous version of OPUS, read this first.

The installation script "opus_install" in the install directory will guide you through the rest of the base installation, user account configuration, and installation of the OPUS Java Managers.

Execute the "opus_install" script by entering:

where "[cd_path]" is the path to where your CD-ROM is mounted, and follow the on-screen instructions. The opus_install script presents you with the following options:

   - Welcome to the OPUS Installation Script! -

   Please choose from the following items:

      [1] Install OPUS to run from a local disk

      [2] Configure a user account to use OPUS for the first time

      [3] Install the OPUS Managers

      [4] NOTE! about upgrading from previous versions

      [5] Exit


Choose option 1 to begin the installation process.

What do I do if the installation fails?

The installation script provides descriptive error messages whenever possible during installation. In most cases, installation problems can be corrected by interpreting the error message. For example, if the error message indicates that the installation failed trying to create the OPUS directory tree because of write permissions, either a new install location must be chosen for the software or the target directory permissions must be changed to allow creation of a directory there by the installer.

Should installation fail at some point, it is possible that only a partial installation was done or that one or more of the OPUS files was left incomplete. A list of all files that the installer copies to your system for each installation option is provided in the file named

in the install directory of the OPUS CD-ROM. Refer to these files to verify that a complete installation was done if you encounter problems during installation.

How do I uninstall the OPUS distribution?

The OPUS distribution is contained under the directory "opus" created at the location specified by the user at installation. To delete the distribution, simply delete the contents of this directory and all of its subdirectories. For example, if you installed OPUS in /usr/local, you would delete the OPUS distribution by issuing the command
   /bin/rm -rf /usr/local/opus
This will remove the OPUS distribution from your disk, but it will not remove modifications to individual users' .cshrc files or remove their definitions, home or path directories. Individual user directories (e.g ~/opus_test/) can be removed by each OPUS user in the same manner as the OPUS distribution using rm. Users can remove OPUS modifications to their .cshrc files by deleting lines containing "041367OPUS" with a text editor. The install script will save the existing version of your .cshrc file, so you have a backup.

To uninstall the Java managers on Windows platforms, follow the usual procedure to remove programs from your system (the installation process installs an uninstaller for the Java managers). On Unix platforms, run the script Uninstall_XOpus2001 in the UninstallerData subdirectory of the OpusMgrs directory you installed previously.

How do I configure my accounts to run OPUS (and RSH/SSH)?

Each account that will run OPUS processes must have access to the OPUS executables (with the exception of tasks run via this advanced-users mode). On Unix systems, this is accomplished by adding the path to the OPUS executables to your default path. OPUS uses the C shell, so the path must be modified in the .cshrc file in your home directory. The install script, "opus_install", has an option to configure individual accounts to use OPUS. Note that the OPUS distribution must be installed before selecting this option. This option will modify your .cshrc file by adding a "set path" statement similar to the following:
   # (041367OPUS:1) *******************************************************
   # (041367OPUS:4)
   # (041367OPUS:5) OTREE /home/mydir/opus/
   set path = ( /cdrom/bin/sparc_solaris /cdrom/com/ $path )
   source /home/mydir/opus_test/definitions//opus_login.csh     # (041367OPUS:7)
   # (041367OPUS:8) *******************************************************
It now will also add a line to source your opus_login.csh file. Be certain to source your .cshrc file before you begin OPUS.


Unix systems can also use the rsh or ssh service to initiate processes on all nodes. This is only necessary if you are distributing your pipeline processing across multiple nodes. See the notes in the $OPUS_DEFINITIONS_DIR:opus_corba_objs file. If you will be running your pipeline on a single node (the default), you may skip the rest of this RSH/SSH section.

To use the rsh service, you must create a .rhosts file in the login directory of each account on each node that will run OPUS pipeline processes. This file should contain entries for every node. Refer to the rhosts man page for a detailed description of this file. In general, each .rhosts file should contain two entries, separated by white space, per line. The first entry specifies a host name, the second entry a login name. Each line grants rsh access to your account from the host named in the first entry by the user named in the second entry, bypassing the normal password authentication procedure.

For example, to allow access to your account smith on foo by user smith on bar, the following line should be added to the .rhosts file on foo:

   bar smith


Be sure you understand the potential security implications before creating a .rhosts file. You might want to use ssh in place of rsh for additional security. The ssh software package is available for many UNIX systems (consult your system administrator as to the availability of ssh at your site). To configure OPUS to use ssh in place of rsh,

  1. Change the definition of OPUS_REMOTE_SHELL in your opus_login.csh file to the path where ssh is installed on your systems. Open a new shell after making these changes, before starting the OPUS servers.
  2. Be sure that you can run ssh commands to each node without being prompted for a password. You can test this outside of OPUS by simply typing   "ssh nodename ls"  . If you continue to receive a prompt during this step, the OPUS servers will not run correctly. See your system administrator for information on how to set up ssh (i.e. how to generate passphrase-less key pairs).
  3. On some systems, you may need to disable X11 forwarding so that ssh doesn't try to prompt you for host key verification via an X11 dialog box. This is done (for protocol 1) by adding "ForwardX11=no" to your ~/.ssh/config file. (On some systems, the correct syntax is "ForwardX11 no".) One symptom of this problem is if you are not able to start processes via the PMG, i.e. if they appear frozen at "starting".
  4. Be aware that with ssh you are able to use accounts with alternate usernames by specifying a block in your ~/.ssh/config file which includes a "Host" line, and a "User" line.

NOTE: Names of nodes that are to be used for OPUS pipeline processing have an initial limit of 20 characters. This limitation is driven by the amount of space allotted for the process name in the "NODE" field of the process status entry. You can, however, increase the allowable size of the node name field.

What is the OPUS directory structure?

The OPUS directory structure consists of two directory trees. There is the OPUS distribution directory, named opus, that was created at installation time. It contains directories that hold the OPUS executables, script files, help files , etc., and any of the processes that you add to the OPUS pipeline. Each OPUS installation need have only one OPUS directory tree, but all OPUS users must have read access to this directory.

The directory structure on the CD-ROM contains the following directories. When you run the installation script to install onto your local disk, these directories will be created:

   bin/                ! executables and scripts
   bin/ibm_aix/        ! ...for the AIX platform
   bin/linux/          ! ...for the Linux platform
   bin/sparc_solaris/  ! ...for the Solaris platform
   bin/java            ! Java jar files used by OPUS
   bin/JavaMgrs        ! Java manager installers
   com/                ! command procedures or scripts (fxlogin.csh)
   dat/                ! OPUS version information
   db/                 ! database files
   definitions/        ! OPUS resource files
   definitions/unix/   ! OPUS resource files; unix specific
   gif/                ! Input data for the sample pipeline
   hlp/                ! Help files for the applications
   html/               ! HTML directory including opusfaq.html
   inc/                ! OAPI header files
   install/            ! Installation scripts and tar files
   lib/                ! OAPI and 3rd party libraries
   lib/ibm_aix/        ! ...for the AIX platform
   lib/sparc_solaris/  ! ...for the Solaris platform
   lib/linux/          ! ...for the Linux platform
   src/                ! sample source code (IDL for example programs, etc)
In addition each user will have his or her own set of directories for local operations. Except for the definitions directory which can contain files that override the delivered definitions, you should consider the contents of these directories as temporary: they can and should be emptied prior to using the OPUS sample pipeline:
   ~/opus_test/home/            !contains process log and status files
   ~/opus_test/home/lock/       !contains lock files dynamically created during PSF updates
   ~/opus_test/definitions/     !overrides the delivered definitions
   ~/opus_test/g2f/input/       !copy the data you want to test here
   ~/opus_test/g2f/obs/         !contains the path-specific observation status files
   ~/opus_test/g2f/obs/lock/    !contains lock files dynamically created during OSF updates
   ~/opus_test/g2f/fits/        !contains the output of the sample pipeline
   ~/opus_test/quick/input/     !A second path simulating quick-look data
   ~/opus_test/repro/input/     !A third path simulating reprocessing.

What environment variables are required?

The user-adjustable environment variables that OPUS needs are defined in opus_login.csh which is located in your OPUS_DEFINITIONS_DIR. The version of this file created at installation will serve as a template for your pipeline and is fully functional for use with the sample pipeline. It defines a minimum set of environment variables necessary to use OPUS with the sample pipeline.

For the sample pipeline discussed below, the opus_login.csh file looks something like this:

#!/bin/csh -X
#       OPUS login
# This file is a template of opus_login.csh.  Any of these variables can
# be stretched through your own area.  Also you can add any additional
# variables to this file for your own application.
# Your customized version of this file should be placed in the directory
# you define below as opus_definitions_dir.
# **************************************************************************
# **************************************************************************
# *********                                                         ********
# *********  Look for the angle brackets <...> below to find where  ********
# *********  to insert parameters for your run-time environment.    ********
# *********                                                         ********
# **************************************************************************
# **************************************************************************
#=================== BEGINNING OF USER-DEFINED VARIABLES =====================
# Define variables for YOUR shell environment.  Examples of every user-
# defined variable precede the actual definitions.  Do NOT copy these
# verbatim.  Use disks and directory trees in YOUR OWN ENVIRONMENT.  Replace
# all angle brackets <...> and their contents with the appropriate values.
# setenv SOGS_DISK <"/home/smith/opus/ /usr/local/opus/">
setenv SOGS_DISK "/info/devcl/pipe/heller/sample//opus/"
# setenv OPUS_DEFINITIONS_DIR <SOGS_DISK:/definitions/>
setenv OPUS_DEFINITIONS_DIR "/home/heller//opus_test//definitions/ SOGS_DISK:/definitions/unix/ SOGS_DISK:/definitions/"
# location for PSTAT files and process log files
# setenv OPUS_HOME_DIR </home/smith/>
setenv OPUS_HOME_DIR /home/heller//opus_test/home//
# set the paths to the remote shell utility (rsh-compatible) and remote
# copy utility (rcp-compatible) to be used by OPUS
setenv OPUS_REMOTE_SHELL `which rsh`
setenv OPUS_REMOTE_COPY  `which rcp`
#====================== END OF USER-DEFINED VARIABLES =========================
# location for default X-resource files (pmg and omg)
# location for shared libraries
if ( $?LD_LIBRARY_PATH ) then
   setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH /info/devcl/pipe/heller/sample//opus/lib/linux/:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
   setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH /info/devcl/pipe/heller/sample//opus/lib/linux/
set fxlogin = `osfile_stretch_file SOGS_DISK:/com/fxlogin.csh`
source $fxlogin

How do I determine whether OPUS works on my system?

Try the sample pipeline provided with the OPUS distribution to ensure that OPUS is working on your system.

Can I run the sample pipeline on a network of mixed Unix types?

Yes. Since OPUS and the sample pipeline support Solaris, Linux, and AIX, you can setup a pipeline that contains nodes running any combination of the above operating systems. You will have to do some extra configuration, however, beyond the basic installation procedure. The fundamental requirement for a mixed Unix pipeline is that all nodes see the same data and control directories; the OPUS executables for each version of Unix also must be installed (note this exception). For the sample pipeline, all of the data and control components are stored under the opus_test directory. With this in mind, you should select option 2 ("Configure user account to use OPUS") for only one of the host types, but choose a location to create this directory tree that is visible to all nodes in your planned pipeline.

Option 2 also modifies your .cshrc script in order to add the OPUS executable directories to your default path. Since this path is operating system dependent, you will need to modify the entries that "opus_install" makes to add support for all versions of Unix you plan to use. In particular, you will need to add one "set path" command per Unix type, and wrap each of these commands in if-else statements so that the correct "set path" command is executed for each operating system. All of this assumes that your login or home directory is the same for each Unix type; if they are not, then you need only copy the additions "opus_install Option 2" makes to your .cshrc on the host you ran it on to the .cshrc files in your other login directories with appropriate changes to the "set path" command bin directory (see below).

Each line that "opus_install" adds to your .cshrc file is indexed by the string "041367OPUS" so that you can easily identify the section of this file pertaining to OPUS. Within the block of statements labeled by this key, you will see the "set path" command mentioned above. For example, if you ran "Option 2" of "opus_install" from a Solaris workstation, the "set path" command line might look like:

   set path = ( /home/me/opus/bin/sparc_solaris/ $path )     # (041367OPUS:6)

The exact directory specification will vary depending on where you installed OPUS, but the important feature at present is the directory "sparc_solaris" under "bin". That is the location of the Solaris OPUS executables. For Linux systems, the directory is "bin/linux" and for AIX, it is "bin/ibm_aix".

You need to isolate this "set path" command so that it is executed only under Solaris, and add other "set path" commands, pointing to the correct bin directory, that are executed only under those operating systems. To accomplish this, duplicate the existing line exactly as many times as necessary for the other operating systems, but replace the directory under "bin" with the other operating system labels (again, "sparc_solaris" for Solaris, "linux" for Linux, and "ibm_aix" for AIX). If you were planning to run under all three supported Unix types, your changes would look like:

set path = ( /home/me/opus/bin/sparc_solaris/ $path )     # (041367OPUS:6)
set path = ( /home/me/opus/bin/ibm_aix/ $path ) # (041367OPUS:6)
set path = ( /home/me/opus/bin/linux/ $path ) # (041367OPUS:6)

Do not modify the label "(041367OPUS:6)", and be careful with the parentheses in the "set path" command: there must be spaces on both sides of them.

Next, you need to wrap each of these statements in if-else clauses so that only one of them is executed per operating system. To do this, make the following changes:

   setenv HOSTTYPE = `uname -s`
   if ( $HOSTTYPE == SunOS ) then
      set path = ( /home/me/opus/bin/sparc_solaris/ $path )  # (041367OPUS:6)
   else if ( $HOSTTYPE == AIX ) then
      set path = ( /home/me/opus/bin/ibm_aix/ $path )  # (041367OPUS:6)
   else if ( $HOSTTYPE == Linux ) then
      set path = ( /home/me/opus/bin/linux/ $path )  # (041367OPUS:6)

HOSTTYPE is pre-defined in the tcsh, but it has different values from `uname -s` so it is overwritten here. For example, the tcsh-defined HOSTTYPE corresponding to sparc_solaris is "sun4", and the tcsh-defined HOSTTYPE corresponding to Linux may be "i686-linux". Again, make sure there are spaces surrounding each of the parentheses.

Finally, you must perform the same customization to your opus_login.csh file for the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. Add the appropriate if/else tree to set LD_LIBRARY_PATH for each operating system following the format of the existing entry.

How do I upgrade my version of the OPUS distribution to v5.4b?

Due to the types of changes introduced in each new version and the corresponding increase in size of the distribution, you must obtain a new CD-ROM in order to perform the upgrade from previous versions. Please send mail to opushelp@stsci.edu and request a copy of the CD-ROM.

The OPUS distribution does not currently include scripts to automatically upgrade your existing version of OPUS. Instead, the following steps must be taken in order to install the latest version of OPUS :

  1. Terminate any OPUS processes running in any pipelines.
  2. Perform a backup of the previous OPUS distribution and any user-created files.
  3. Perform a complete uninstall of the previous version.
  4. Install OPUS as described above.

OPUS Managers

How do I install the OPUS Java Managers?

The Institute has selected the InstallAnywhere package from ZeroG to bundle the Java managers and help with the installation.

The top level /bin/ directory on the CDROM contains the binaries which perform installation. The OpusMgrs.bin file is for unix platforms, and the OpusMgrs.exe file is for Windows platforms.

Each binary is a graphical user interface (GUI) which prompts you for installation information. You may launch this GUI from option 3 of the install script, or you may run the GUI directly from the CDROM.

What platforms can I run the managers on?

The OPUS Java managers have been tested on the following platforms.
    - Solaris       2.8
    - Linux         RedHat 8.0, Fedora Core 1, RedHat Enterprise 3
    - AIX           5.1
    - Windows       98, NT, 2000, XP
Because the managers require some Java Native Interface (JNI) code to link with the CORBA servers, the user interface for other platforms has not been developed yet.

How do I run the installers?

For the Windows platform, just double-click on the OpusMgrs.exe entry. On the Unix plaforms you may either launch the installer from option 3 of the install script, or just specify the name of the task on the command line:

% OpusMgrs.bin

  This will bring up the InstallAnywhere logo and begin the installation process.


What choices do I have?

First you are asked where to install the application. For Windows the suggestion is in the Program Files directory, but you may select any other location you prefer. For Unix the suggested location is in your home directory path.

[InstallAnywhere path selection]

Next you are given a list of the Java VM (Virtual Machines) which the InstallAnywhere application found on your machine.

[InstallAnywhere Java selection]

You should select a version of Java which is at least at the level of 1.3. The OPUS Managers do not work with older versions of Java.

If you do not yet have the Java Virtual Machine, you can download them freely from the Sun Java site.

[InstallAnywhere Typical/Full]

Finally you are asked whether you wish a "Typical Install", or a "Full Install". The difference, which applies only to the Windows platform, is that the Full install includes the dynamic link libraries (DLL) which are required by the OPUS Managers to communicate with the CORBA Servers. The first time you install on any machine, you should select the "Full Install". If you receive upgrades to the OPUS Managers which did not require rebuilds of those object libraries, you can select the "Typical Install" option.

How do I use SFTP in the Managers ?

The OPUS Managers use FTP by default to initialize the connection with the CORBA server and verify the user, as well as to access remote files while viewing items in the Managers such as log files and resource files. Because there exists a potential security risk with the use of traditional unencrypted FTP (though the user's password is never displayed, nor written to any log file), OPUS now supports the use of SFTP.

Requirements for SFTP:

SFTP capability does not come standard with Java, but it is freely available in Java from a number of places. The current OPUS Managers support the use of J2SSH ver. 0.2.7 - an open source Java SSH2 package originally developed by 3SP.com (not the "Maverick" product, but the free J2SSH package). It is available for download by SourceForge.net. If the link above does not work, try the SourceForge main page and search for "sshtools" or "j2ssh". Download J2SSH ver. 0.2.7.

Note that OPUS 4.5 supported J2SSH v0.2.2, but the current OPUS supports v0.2.7, and the two versions of J2SSH are incompatible.

To use J2SSH in OPUS, you will need to download and build the J2SSH package, and install 3 jar files (note that some are renamed):

If you are not yet using Java 1.4, see these extra requirements for Java 1.3.

All of the above files can, if you wish, simply be installed into the extensions area of your Java distribution instead, in which case the names of the jar files do not matter. To do so, simply drop them into the [java-jre-dir]/lib/ext directory, or see your system administrator.

How to enable SFTP:

Once the necessary jar files have been installed, SFTP can be enabled in OPUS in either of two ways:

This will enable SFTP instead of FTP for all file transfers for that session.

Can I use SFTP with Java 1.3 ?

Yes, but you will first need to download and install the Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) 1.2.2 from Sun. This step is not necessary with Java 1.4, which includes JCE. However, this is required to use SFTP with Java 1.3. Note that it is very important to install JCE1.2.2 as described by Sun, remembering to "statically" register the "SunJCE" provider, as described in the downloaded instructions.

Debugging Help:

Finally, how do I run the installed managers?

On the Windows platform you should see new entries in your Start menu which you can activate with a mouse-click.

On the Unix platforms you will see a link in your home directory to both the PMG task and the OMG task. All you need to do is type those names. See the more complete explanation of the Managers in the following sections.

Please note: you must have started the OPUS Servers before the OPUS Managers can be activated!

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